Colombian datura virus
Significance: Colombian datura virus (CDV) was first described by Kahn and Bartels (1968) who found the virus in plant material of Brugmansia (syn. Datura) candida Pers. and B. (syn. Datura) sanguinea (Ruiz. and Pav.) D. Don (common name: Angel's trumpet) imported from Colombia (Sibundoy Valley, Putumayo).
Little else was reported about the virus until Lesemann et al., (1996) indicated that virus-infected Brugmansia were observed in private and commercial European collections. A survey in parts of Germany and Netherlands by Lesemann et al. confirmed CDV in Brugmansia x arborea, B. aurea, B. x aurea, B. candida, B. x candida, B. cornigera, B. x flava, B. sanguinea, B. suaveolens, B. versicolor, various Brugsmania hybrids, a few plants of Juanulloa aurantiaca, and one plant of Petunia hybrida'Otto'.
Also around that time, CDV was detected in approximately 300 plants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cv. Cabrion growing in a Netherlands greenhouse (Verhoeven et al., 1996). Evidence suggests aphids (Myzus persicae) within the greenhouse transmitted the virus from an infected Brugmansia plant to the tomato plants. Infected tomato plants showed reduced growth, mosaic on young leaves, and fruit discoloration. While additional distribution information from Europe was mostly lacking, Verhoeven et al. believed the virus was likely in other parts of Europe in ornamental Brugmansia (1996).
Eight years later (2004), a virus-like infection of field grown tobacco was observed in Poland, Germany, and Hungary. By means of cloning and partial cDNA sequencing the causal agent was eventually identified as CDV (Schubert et al., 2006).
The virus is now known to be sporadically distributed in Europe and Japan, mainly under glass. In parts of Europe the virus has been found outside glasshouses, on Brugmansia, Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and pepino (Solanum muricatum). Recently the virus was found in the United States, in both terrestrial orchids (Spiranthese cernua, Fry et al., 2004) and Brugmansia (Adkins et al., 2005).
Issues of Concern: Infections of CDV can be symptomless (Strumpf et al., 2005). In Germany, Strumpf et al. (2005)found CDV infections in an experimental tobacco field originated from a symptomless Brugmansia that overwintered in the same glasshouse as the seedling tobacco.
The aphid vector is reported in all NAPPO countries and numerous countries worldwide (CABI, 2005).
Other economically important Solonaceous hosts could be at risk for infection. A recent report from Europe indicates the virus is also capable of infecting some potato cultivars (Chrzanowska et al., 2005).
Pathways: Aphid transmission (Myzus persicae, non-persistant), mechanical inoculation or grafting (Brunt et al., 1996 onwards).
Schubert J., Doroszewska T., Chrzanowska M., Sztangret-Wisniewska J. 2006. Natural Infection of Tobacco by Colombian datura virus in Poland, Germany and Hungary. Journal of Phytopathology Vol. 154:343-348.
Other References- Adkins S., Chellemi D., Annamalai M., and C. Baker. 2005. Colombian datura virus diagnosed in Brugmansia spp. in Florida. Phytopathology Vol. 95 (No. 6, supplemental):S2.
Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and E.J. Zurcher (eds.). (1996 onwards). `Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996.' URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/
Chrzanowska, M., Doroszewska, T., Garbaczewska, G., Golnik, K., and J. Schubert. 2005. Nowo wykryty virus v tytoniu moze zakazac roseliny ziemniaka. Ziemnial Polski 3:15-16.
CABI. 2005. Crop Protection Compendium. CAB International. Wallingford, UK. CD-ROM.
Fry, C.R., Zimmerman, M.T., and S.W. Scott. 2004. Occurrence of Colombian datura virus in the Terrestrial Orchids, Spiranthese cernua. J. Phytopathology Vol.152:200-204 (as cited in source).
Kahn, R.P. and R. Bartels. 1968. The Colombian datura virus - A New Virus in the Potato Virus Y Group. Phytopathology Vol.58 (No. 5):587-592.
Lesemann, D.E., Preissel, H.G., Verhoeven, J.T.J., Loebenstein, G., Hammond, J., Gera, A., Derks, A.FL.M., and A. van Zaayen. 1996. Detection of Colombian datura potyvirus and two unidentified potyviruses in Brugmansia hybrids. Acta Horticulturae No. 432:346-353.
Strumpf, T., Buckhorn, R., and D.E. Lesemann. 2005. Auftreten des Colombian Datura virus an Tabak (Nicotiana tabacum cv. 'Virgin') im Freiland in Deutschland. Nachrichtenbl Dtsch Pflanzenschutzd Vol. 57:1-3.
Verhoeven, J.T.J., Lesemann, D.E., and J.W. Roenhorst. 1996. First report of Colombian datura potyvirus in tomato. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 1996, Vol.102 (No.9):.895-898.