Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus
Significance: Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus has been highlighted in an Official Pest Report (http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=569). This virus causes disease in cucurbits, such as Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) and Cucumis lunatus (cucumber), which can lead to significant economic losses (Liu et al., 2014; Shargil et al., 2016). It has also been detected in the following weeds that can serve as reservoir hosts: Amaranthus retroflexus, A. blitoides, Heliotropium europaeum, Chenopodium album, Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum (Boubourakas et al., 2004), and Heracleum moellendorffii (Cho et al., 2015). CGMMV has been reported from parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia (Shargil et al., 2016), Australia (Tesoriero et al., 2015), and Canada (Ling et al., 2014), and has been detected in the United States in California (Tian et al., 2014). CGMMV can be transmitted mechanically through infected seed and pollen, as well as contaminated materials, such as soil and plant debris (Liu et al., 2014).
Issues of Concern: A recent publication reports that, during a 2013 survey, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus was isolated from Amaranthus graecizans, A. muricatus, Chrozophora tinctoria, Moluccella laevis, and Withania somnifera plants (Shargil et al., 2016). This is the first report of these weed species as hosts of CGMMV.
Boubourakas, I. N., Hatziloukas, E., Antignus, Y., and N. I. Katis. 2004. Etiology of Leaf Chlorosis and Deterioration of the Fruit Interior of Watermelon Plants. Journal of Phytopathology 152(10):580-588.
Cho, S.-Y., Y. S. Kim, and Y. H. Jeon. 2015. First report of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting Heracleum moellendorffii Hance in Korea. Plant Disease 99(6):897.
Ling, K.-S., R. Li, and W. Zhang. 2014. First report of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada. Plant Disease 98(5):701.
Liu, H. W., Luo, L. X., Li, J. Q., Liu, P. F., Chen, X. Y., and J. J. Hao. 2014. Pollen and seed transmission of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucumber. Plant Pathology 63(1): 72-77.
Shargil, D., E. Smith, O. Lachman, V. Reingold, E. Darzi, Y. Tam, and A. Dombrovsky. 2016. New weed hosts for Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in wild Mediterranean vegetation. European Journal of Plant Pathology DOI: 10.1007/s10658-016-1105-5.
Tesoriero, L. A., Chambers, G., Srivastava, M., Smith, S., Conde, B., L. T. T. Tran-Nguyen. 2015. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 11, 1–3.
Tian, T., Posis, K., Maroon-Lango, C. J., Mavrodieva, V., Haymes, S., Pitman, T. L., and B. W. Falk. 2014. First report of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus on melon in the United States. Plant Disease, 98, 1163–1163.