Cydalima perspectalis (Walker)
Significance: Cydalima perspectalis is a moth native to East Asia, but has spread throughout Europe as an invasive pest of Buxus spp., causing major damage in natural and planted stands (Nacambo et al., 2014). Larval feeding can cause complete defoliation of the tree. Larvae can also feed on the bark of Buxus plants which can result in drying out of the tree and eventually, tree death (Nacambo et al., 2014).
Issues of Concern:
- To date, Cydalima perspectalis has not been reported from North America.
- This pest is of concern because many Buxus spp. are commonly propagated and sold by the nursery industry as an ornamental plant (Anonymous, 2016; Bilderback et al., 1997; Pascoe, 2015).
Hosts: Cydalima perspectalis is reported as a pest of Buxaceae: Buxus spp. (boxwood in English, Boj in Spanish) (Nacambo et al., 2014), and it has been shown to oviposit, feed, and develop on Buxus microphylla, B. sempervirens, B. m. var. insularis, B. m. var. japonica (Maruyama, 1992; Maruyama, 1993; Maruyama and Shinkaji, 1991), B. sempervirens var. sempervirens, B. s. var. rotundifolia, B. s. var. argenteovariegata, B. s. var. aureovariegata (Leuthardt and Baur, 2013), and B. microphylla var. faulkner (Leuthardt et al., 2013).
Distribution: Asia- China, Japan, the Republic of Korea; Europe- Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, the Netherlands, Romania, parts of Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom (EPPO, 2015; Nacambo et al., 2014; Perez-Otero et al., 2014; Strachinis et al., 2015; Zovko and Elez, 2015).
Anonymous. 2016. Red Viverista. Last accessed December 23, 2016, http://www.redviverista.com.
Bilderback, T., J. Baker, and R. Jones. 1997. Commercial Boxwood Production Horticulture Information Leaflet. North Carolina State University Last accessed December 23, 2016, https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/commercial-boxwood-production.
EPPO. 2015. PQR- EPPO database on quarantine pests. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). https://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm.
Leuthardt, F. L. G., and B. Baur. 2013. Oviposition preference and larval development of the invasive moth Cydalima perspectalis on five European box-tree varieties. Journal of Applied Entomology 137(6):437-444.
Leuthardt, F. L. G., G. Glauser, and B. Baur. 2013. Composition of alkaloids in different box tree varieties and their uptake by the box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis. Chemoecology 23(4):203-212.
Maruyama, T. 1992. Difference in Injury Levels Caused by the Box-Tree Pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Various Box-Trees. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 36(1):56-58.
Maruyama, T. 1993. Life cycle of the box-tree pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), 4: Effect of various host plants on larval growth and food utilization. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology (Japan) 37:117-122.
Maruyama, T., and N. Shinkaji. 1991. The life-cycle of the box-tree pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). II. Developmental characteristics of larvae. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 35(3):221-230.
Nacambo, S., F. L. G. Leuthardt, H. Wan, H. Li, T. Haye, B. Baur, R. M. Weiss, and M. Kenis. 2014. Development characteristics of the box-tree moth Cydalima perspectalis and its potential distribution in Europe. Journal of Applied Entomology 138(1-2):14-26.
Pascoe, M. 2015. World Plants. http://www.canadaplants.ca.
Perez-Otero, R., J. P. Mansilla, and M. Vidal. 2014. Cydalima perspectalis Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae): a new threat for Buxus spp. in the Iberian Peninsula. Arquivos Entomoloxicos 10:225-228.
Strachinis, I., C. Kazilas, F. Karamaouna, N. Papanikolaou, G. Partsinevelos, and P. Milonas. 2015. First record of Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal 8(2):66-72.
Zovko, M., and D. Elez. 2015. New records of box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Works of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sarajevo) 60(65 (1)):139-143.