Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Takikawa, Serizawa, Ichikawa, Tsuyumu and Goto)
Significance: Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwi (Takikawa et al., 1989). It is one of the most damaging kiwifruit pathogens and has been shown to limit kiwifruit production in Japan and Korea, as well as cause severe vine losses in Italy (Chapman et al., 2012). Infection occurs through wounds, stomata, or any other available opening in the leaves, stem, or flowers. After infection, trunks and canes crack and turn brown while exuding bacterial ooze. (Serizawa et al., 1989). This pathogen infects Actinidia spp. (kiwi), as well as Setaria viridis (green bristlegrass), Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligatorweed), and Paulownia tomentosa (princesstree) (Liu et al., 2016).
It is known to occur in Chile (EPPO, 2011a); France (EPPO, 2010); Germany (EPPO, 2013); the country of Georgia (Meparishvili et al., 2016); Greece (Holeva et al., 2015); Italy (Scortichini, 1994); Japan (Takikawa et al., 1989); Korea (Koh et al., 2010); New Zealand (Everett et al., 2011); Portugal (Balestra et al., 2010); Slovenia (Dreo et al., 2014); Spain (Balestra et al., 2011); Switzerland (EPPO, 2011b); and Turkey (Bastas et al., 2012).
Issues of Concern: In 2017, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae was detected on pollen of cultivated Actinidia deliciosa (kiwi) plants in Argentina. Koch’s postulates confirmed the pathogenicity of isolates to Actinidia deliciosa. This is the first detection of P. syringae pv. actinidiae in Argentina (Balestra et al., 2017).
Balestra GM; Renzi M; Mazzaglia A, 2010. First report of bacterial canker of Actinidia deliciosa caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Portugal. New Disease Reports, 22:Article 10.
Balestra, G. M., M. Renzi, and A. Mazzaglia. 2011. First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on kiwifruit plants in Spain. New Disease Reports 24(1):10.
Balestra, G. M., G. Buriani, A. Cellini, I. Donati, A. Mazzaglia, and F. Spinelli. 2017. First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on kiwifruit pollen from Argentina. Plant Disease, 102(1):237.
Bastas, K. K. and A. Karakaya. 2012. First report of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Turkey. Plant Disease, 96(3):452
Chapman, J. R., Taylor, R. K., Weir, B. S., Romberg, M. K., Vanneste, J. L., Luck, J., and Alexander, B. J. R. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among global populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Phytopathology, 102:1034-1044.
Dreo T; Pirc M; Ravnikar M; Zezlina I; Poliakoff F; Rivoal C; Nice F; Cunty A, 2014. First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in Slovenia. Plant Disease, 98(11):1578.
EPPO. 2010. First record of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in France. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). October 1, 2010. Accessed November 15, 2018 from